How to calculate output voltage of half wave rectifier

How to calculate output voltage of half wave rectifier

In our preceding subjects approximately diodes, we`ve discovered approximately the pn junction, and the way a diode works in ahead bias and opposite bias. We have additionally mentioned LEDs, that’s a special-reason diode, and feature discovered their operation and specific applications. This time, we`re going to talk about some other utility of a diode that’s sincerely not unusualplace in all digital systems, the rectifier, specifically, the 1/2 of wave rectifier in this case. How to calculate output voltage of half wave rectifier

Rectifiers are circuits that convert an AC voltage right into a DC voltage.

They’re constantly found in DC energy elements that function from an AC voltage supply. The cap potential of a diode to permit half wave rectifier modern to glide in a single route and block it withinside the different routes makes them very beneficial in rectifier circuits. When a diode is used withinside the rectification process, it’s miles commonly called a rectifier.


DC energy elements are honestly vital in each digital machine because all lively digital gadgets require a DC voltage supply to function. To apprehend the character of a rectifier in an energy delivery, we have to at the least recognize the additives and the operation of a fundamental DC energy delivery. From a better stage, the additives of a DC energy delivery are the transformer, the rectifier, the clear out, the regulator, and finally, the weight. We`ll pass over the ones in brief after which dive deeper into the rectifier portion.


Most of the time, digital gadgets require a lesser voltage stage than the AC voltage stage to be had at wall outlets. That is why in fundamental DC energy elements (linear regulated types) the primary aspect that you’ll see is a transformer.

The transformer lets in the AC voltage supply to be stepped down toward the voltage stage which you want and it additionally isolates the AC supply electrically from the rectifier that’s the aspect after the transformer. The secondary voltage of a transformer relies upon the turns ratio. But in reality, when you buy a transformer, it`s now no longer particularly primarily based totally on the turns ratio but at the secondary, or “output”



The rectifier, which we can speak greater later, converts the AC voltage throughout the second facet of the transformer right into a pulsating DC voltage. It can be a 1/2 of-wave or full-wave rectifier type, however, on this academic, we can simply consciousness at the 1/2 of-wave type.


The pulsing output of the rectifier isn’t top-sufficient for use in digital gadgets. That`s why, after the rectifier, a clear-out is vital with the purpose to produce a clean DC voltage. The clear-out out may be an unmarried electrolytic capacitor or a mixture of electrolytic and ceramic capacitors.


Although the output of the clear-out out is now smoother, if there are adjustments withinside the enter voltage or the load, the output DC voltage of the energy delivered can be affected. To keep away from this, a regulator is used after the clear-out.

The regulator regulates the voltage so we should have a regular DC voltage throughout the weight. Regulators may be an unmarried semiconductor tool like a Zener diode or can be greater complex incorporated circuits, commonly a trade-off between ease and value as opposed to efficiency.

HALF-WAVE RECTIFICATION How to calculate output voltage of half wave rectifier

Now, focusing on the rectifier, as referred to earlier, rectifiers can be 1/2 of-wave or full-wave, however, for now, we`re simply going to talk about the 1/2-of-wave rectifier. The picture above indicates a normal utility circuit of a 1/2-of-wave rectifier.

From the hundred and twenty volts AC 60Hz wall outlet, there`s a fuse, F1

 for safety and a transformer to step down the AC voltage into the preferred voltage. The output voltage throughout the secondary is decreased however its frequency continues to be 60Hz, because of this the voltage will alternate from high-quality to bad and bad to high-quality 60 instances consistent with the second. Now let`s see what occurs for the duration of one cycle of the AC voltage in a 1/2 of-wave rectifier.

At this time we`re simply going to deal with the diode as best. During the high-quality 1/2

of-cycle, the diode is ahead-biased and lets in modern thru the weight which produces an output voltage throughout the weight. Since the diode is taken into consideration to be best (acts similar to a closed switch), the output voltage throughout the weight looks as if the high-quality 1/2 of the enter AC voltage.

Half-wave rectifiers handiest use one diode to transform the AC voltage right into a DC voltage.

So whilst the voltage adjustments from high-quality to bad 1/2 of-cycle, the diode is opposite-biased and doesn`t permit modern to byskip. In this case, for the duration of the bad 1/2 of-cycle, no modern may byskip thru the weight so the voltage throughout its miles is zero.

In 1/2 of-wave rectification, handiest the high-quality 1/2 of-cycle of the enter AC voltage is transformed right into a DC voltage. The result throughout the weight is pulsating DC voltage with a 60Hz frequency.

Effect of the Barrier Potential at the Half-Wave Rectifier Output

So that`s how a 1/2 of-wave rectifier works whilst the diode is taken into consideration to be best. In reality, the barrier capacity MadPcb of the diode influences the output of the 1/2 of-wave rectifier. Because of the barrier capacity, the diode continues to be open whilst the enter voltage is much less than the barrier capacity stage.

so the width of the wave is barely much less than you`d anticipate in the best conditions.

Also, in case you evaluate the graph of the enter and output, you`ll work an offset and the height cost of the output voltage is 0.7V much less than the height cost of the enter voltage if the diode is silicon.

RMS, Peak, and Average Value How to calculate output voltage of half wave rectifier

AC voltages may be laid out in phrases of its top or rms (root-mean-square) cost. However, the AC voltage from the wall outlet is in rms in addition to the secondary voltage of the transformer. To calculate the output voltage of a 1/2 of-wave rectifier.

we want to calculate first the height cost of the transformer’s secondary voltage via way of means of multiplying the rms cost of its voltage via way of means of 1.414. Then after that, subtract the barrier capacity, that’s generally 0.7V from the height cost of the secondary voltage. The result you’ll get is the voltage throughout the weight at its top. The common or the DC

By Michael Caine

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